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Full text of "Smoke detectors and legislation"

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SMOKE 
DETECTORS 




An Update on State and Local Laws 



National Fire Data Center 
United States Fire Administration 
Federal Emergency IVIanagement Agency 



TO THE READER: 

Since Smoke Detectors and Legislation was pub- 
lished in September 1977, increased awareness of 
smoke detectors' effectiveness in reducing the loss 
of life and property from fire has resulted in either 
new or updated residential smoke detector legisla- 
tion in several States. 

As of October 1978, 22 States and the District of 
Columbia had adopted mandatory smoke detector 
laws for new residential construction. Five States and 
the District of Columbia also required smoke detec- 
tors in existing residential structures under selected 
conditions. Seven other States had enacted smoke 
detector legislation, but these laws are either a 
recommended guide only or require additional legis- 
lative action at the local level for the provisions to 
apply. Twenty-one States had no smoke detector 
laws, though at the time of the study at least nine 
State legislatures were considering such measures. 

A word of caution: The enactment of a smoke detec- 
tor law is not a cure-all. Once installed, detectors 
must be regularly tested and properly maintained. 
Occupants should practice an escape plan that pro- 
vides for two ways out in the event of a fire. To be 
truly effective, the law must be complemented by an 
ongoing public education program. 



Recent findings from the National Fire Incident 
Reporting System show that in residential fires 
during the night, when most fatal fires occur, 
you are 2V2 times less likely to die if there is a 
properly installed and operating smoke detec- 
tion device. You are also iy2 times less likely 
to be injured. 



SMOKE 
DETECTORS 



ANOLEGEMT 



An Update on State and Local Laws 




National Fire Data Center 
United States Fire Administration 

Federal Emergency Management Agency 



June 1979 

Prepared by: 
Howard M. Markman 
Philip E. Crombie, Jr. 



TABLE OF 
CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 4 

Analysis of State Legislation 5 

Definitions 5 

Statewide Legislation 6 

The Role of Model Codes 7 

Minimum/Maximum Codes 8 

Summary 3 

State by State Summary 9 

Model Code Provisions 18 

Basic Building Code 18 

National Building Code 18 

Standard Building Code 19 

Uniform Building Code 19 

One and Two Family Dwelling Code 19 

Life Safety Code 19 

Mobile Homes 20 

HUD Regulations 20 

State and Local Effect 20 

ANSI and NFPA Standards 20 

Local Legislation 21 

List of State Contacts 24 

Addresses of Model Code Organizations 30 



NOTES 



INTRODUCTION 



In March 1977, the U.S. Fire Administration under- 
took a study of State and local requirements for 
smoke detectors in residential occupancies. This 
study served as the basis for the manual Smoke De- 
tectors and Legislation. The fourth of five smoke de- 
tector public education manuals published by the 
Administration, it was designed to motivate and aid 
the fire service and concerned citizens in drafting 
effective smoke detector legislation. 

After numerous requests by local governments, busi- 
nesses, the fire service and the press concerning 
changes in the status of smoke detector legislation, 
a second study was completed in late October 1978. 
The results of that study are contained in this report. 
Though focused primarily on smoke detector legis- 
lation adopted at the State level, data on county and 
local laws has been included when available. Re- 
quirements for other types of detectors, e.g., heat 
detectors, were outside the scope of the project. 

Though this Update closely parallels the original 
Legislation manual, the two documents are intended 
to serve different purposes. The Update describes 
and analyzes the current status of smoke detector 
legislation and the requirements of various model 
codes. Anyone desiring a fuller understanding 
should read the original manual, which contains 
background material and examples of State, local, 
and model legislation. (Instructions for obtaining the 
original manual are on the inside back cover.) 

The Fire Administration recognizes that neither the 
original manual nor the Update can ever be com- 
pletely current, for new detector laws and ordi- 
nances are continually being enacted. Therefore, any 
reader with information more current than that con- 
tained within the Update is encouraged to corre- 
spond with the Home and Public Building Safety 
Division, United States Fire Administration, P.O. Box 
19518, Washington, D.C. 20036. 



ANALYSIS OF STATE 
LEGISLATION 



NOTES 



This analysis is based upon the data collected in the 
"STATE BY STATE SUMMARY." Unless otherwise 
noted, these definitions apply to all sections of the 
Update. 

DEFINITIONS 

"Legislation" or "law" includes an originally drafted 
statute or ordinance as well as the incorporation by 
reference of all or part of a model building or fire 
code. Unless otherwise noted, the law, ordinance, 
or any other form of regulation should be consid- 
ered a mandatory provision. In addition, the pre- 
sumption is that the regulation applies State-, 
county- or city-wide. 

The phrase "residential housing" or "residential con- 
struction" means one- and two-family dwellings 
(detached, semi-detached, duplexes, etc.) and multi- 
family dwellings (apartments, condominiums, etc.). 
The phrase should not be taken to include hotels, 
motels, guest, boarding or rooming houses, or any 
other commercial or residential occupancy for tran- 
sients unless otherwise noted. It also does not in- 
clude institutional occupancies such as nursing 
homes, jails, and mental institutions. Information 
pertaining to requirements for transient occupancies 
is not complete; thus, a failure to reference any 
regulations should not be taken to mean that no 
regulations exist. Detector requirements vary from 
one model code to the next and from one edition 
to another. When reference is made to a model 
code, the provisions of that particular code apply, 
which may or may not require detectors in residen- 
tial occupancies for transients. See pages 18-19 for 
requirements of various model codes. 

The word "new" should be taken to include those 
existing structures that are required to comply with 
the requirements of new construction. Generally, 
these include: (1) new additions of sleeping areas 
and (2) major renovations of an existing structure. 
The definition of "major renovation" may not be 
consistent and should be checked locally. 

"Smoke detector" or "smoke detection" should be 
presumed to mean that either a photoelectric or 
ionization type detector is required under the law. 
While some legislative acts specify the acceptable 
types of detectors, many give the Fire Marshal or 
other specified public official or agency (commonly 
referred to as the "authority having jurisdiction") 
the power to approve detection devices. 



NOTES 



Similarly, while some legislative acts specify how the 
detection devices are to be located or installed, 
other acts are not specific and simply charge an ap- 
propriate individual or agency with promulgating 
appropriate regulations. Generally, local administra- 
tive regulations adopted have not been cited here, 
although it can be noted that a number of States are 
enforcing the requirements of the "Standard for 
Household Fire Warning Equipment" (NFPA No. 
74, published by the National Fire Protection 
Association). 

All references to State or local regulations governing 
mobile homes are discussed in a separate section 
of the Update on page 20. 

STATEWIDE LEGISLATION 

Twenty-two States and the District of Columbia have 
mandatory statewide legislation requiring smoke de- 
tectors in new residential construction. These are: 
Alabama, Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, 
District of Columbia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, 
Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, New 
Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, 
Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyo- 
ming. 

However, there are wide variations in the types of 
buildings covered. The Ohio Building Code applies 
only to structures with four or more units, while the 
Ohio Fire Code extends jurisdiction to buildings 
with two or more dwelling units. Rhode Island law 
covers only one-, two-, and three-family dwellings 
but covers both new and modified structures. The 
Mississippi law governs apartments, but not one- 
and two-family dwellings. 

Only five States and the District of Columbia were 
found to have regulations that apply to existing 
structures. Maryland requires existing "residential" 
buildings not in compliance with the 1973 Edition 
of NFPA's Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) to comply 
with Maryland's detector law. Alaska law requires 
smoke detectors at the time of the sale of existing 
"living units." The Minnesota law governs all existing 
hotels, lodging houses, and apartments; one- and 
two-family dwellings rented or remodeled after 
January 1, 1980, are also included within the law. 
Oregon requires smoke detectors in any residential 
structure which undergoes remodeling of $1,000 or 
more; the Rhode Island law speaks of any building 
"constructed or converted for residential occu- 
pancy." The District of Columbia's law requires 
smoke detectors in all existing residential structures, 
including single family dwellings, by June 20, 1981; 
existing structures "substantially renovated" must 
comply at the time of renovation. 



Other States have enacted legislation that is not au- 
tomatically binding upon the citizens of the State; 
these laws either establish a recommended guide or 
require additional action at the local level for the 
provisions to apply. Seven States are in this group. 
The State building codes of Idaho, New York, and 
Nevada must be adopted by local governments for 
the provisions to become mandatory. A substantial 
number of local jurisdictions in Idaho and New York 
have adopted the codes and are thus bound by the 
detector laws. A recent Minnesota State law re- 
quired all local jurisdictions to adopt and enforce 
the State Building Code effective January 1, 1979. 
New Hampshire and Nebraska use the 1976 Edition 
of the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) but have no pro- 
visions for mandatory enforcement of the code. 
Tennessee has adopted as guides the 1976 Edition of 
the Standard Building Code and the complete set of 
NFPA Fire Codes, neither of which are mandatory in 
the State. 

The final grouping contains those States that have no 
major smoke detector legislation. In little over one 
year this category has dropped from 28 to 21, and 
these States are not altogether silent. Nine of the 
States had bills pending before their legislatures at 
the time of this study. In several others, legislation 
had recently been defeated. Illinois requires smoke 
detector protection in specific areas of transient 
residential occupancies. Maine requires detectors 
for buildings "in which there are more than 15 sleep- 
ing rooms for hire." 



NOTES 



THE ROLE OF MODEL CODES 

Model codes are developed by private, non-govern- 
mental organizations. They are intended to promote 
uniformity of acceptable construction practices, and 
to relieve State and local governments of the great 
expense and burden of writing and updating individ- 
ual codes. A model code has no legal significance 
until it is adopted into law by a State or local 
governing body. 

A look at the number of States using provisions of 
the model building codes in their laws underscores 
the impact that these codes have had on smoke de- 
tector legislation. The specific provisions of the vari- 
ous model codes are discussed in a separate section 
of the Update on pages 18-19. 

Ten States use various versions of the ICBO Uniform 
Building Code. (ICBO is the International Confer- 
ence of Building Officials.) 

Five States — Colorado, Indiana, Nevada, Utah, and 
Washington — use all or part of the 1973 Edition of 
the Uniform Building Code. The 1976 Edition is 
used in legislation of five other States: California, 
Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, and Wyoming. 



NOTES 



Four States use the BOCA (Building Officials and 
Code Administrators international, Inc.) Basic Build- 
ing Code. The State of Michigan and the Pennsyl- 
vania Industrialized Housing Division work with 
the 1975 Edition. New Jersey and Virginia have 
adopted the 1978 Edition of the Basic Building Code. 
Kentucky's State Building Code, effective February 
1980, will be based on the Basic Building Code. 

Two States, Alabama and Tennessee, rely upon the 
1976 Edition of the Standard Building Code, pub- 
lished by the Southern Building Code Congress 
International. 

The NFPA Fire Codes are also widely used. Eight 
States — Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, 
Nebraska, New Hampshire, Tennessee, and Vermont 
— use all or part of these codes and have adopted, 
at least as a guide, either the 1973 or 1976 Edition of 
NFPA 101 Life Safety Code. The State of Connecti- 
cut requires Level Four Protection as defined in the 
1974 edition of NFPA No. 74. 



MINIMUM/MAXIMUM CODES 

Seven States have adopted their building codes as 
"minimum/maximum" codes, i.e., mandatory state- 
wide but not subject to local amendment. These 
States are: Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jer- 
sey, New York, Oregon, and Virginia. Local jurisdic- 
tions are apparently free to regulate those structures 
not subject to the building code. For example, Ches- 
terfield County, Virginia, has adopted regulations 
requiring detectors in existing multi-family dwellings 
(three or more units). 

SUMMARY 

Smoke detectors are required in new, residential 
construction in twenty-two States plus the District 
of Columbia. Idaho, Minnesota, and New York could 
be added to this category since major portions of 
these States enforce non-binding State laws. 

Legislation was pending in nine States that had no 
smoke detector regulations. Twenty-four States have 
incorporated or referenced some type of model 
code or standard in their detector laws or have 
adopted these codes as recommended guides. Seven 
States have adopted minimum/maximum codes; five 
States and the District of Columbia have made pro- 
visions for existing residential structures in their 
legislation. There are still 21 States which make no 
provision for smoke detectors in their statutes. 



STATE BY STATE 
SUMMARY 



NOTES 



ALABAMA 

The 1976 Edition of the Standard Building Code, 
which is mandatory statewide, requires smoke de- 
tectors in all new residential construction. Smoke 
detectors are also required in all existing hospitals 
not equipped with automatic sprinkler systems 
and in all existing correctional institutions. Alabama 
uses the 1976 Edition of the NFPA 101 Life Safety 
Code for child daycare centers. 

ALASKA 

The State of Alaska passed legislation effective Janu- 
ary 1, 1976, requiring that "smoke detection de- 
vices" shall be installed in all living units built, man- 
ufactured, or sold in the State. ("Sold" has been 
interpreted to apply to both new and existing living 
units.) The smoke detection device and its place- 
ment must be approved by the State Fire Marshal. 

ARIZONA 

No statewide smoke detector legislation applicable 
to residential housing was located. 

ARKANSAS 

No smoke detector legislation. State or local, appli- 
cable to residential housing was located. 

CALIFORNIA 

Under a mandatory State Housing Law, all new 
dwelling units constructed after January 1, 1974, are 
required to have smoke detection devices. The law 
references the 1976 Edition of the Uniform Building 
Code and governs one- and two-family dwellings as 
well as apartments. Legislation requiring the installa- 
tion of smoke detectors in residential housing upon 
resale has not been adopted. 

Local jurisdictions have established much more com- 
prehensive smoke detector ordinances, e.g., San 
Carlos, San Rafael, and Mountain View. 

COLORADO 

The State of Colorado has adopted the 1973 Edition 
of the Uniform Building Code which is mandatory 
statewide and requires smoke detectors in new resi- 
dential construction. The Colorado Division of 
Housing has enforcement responsibility. The admin- 
istrative process for the adoption of the 1976 Edition 
of the Uniform Building Code has been initiated. 

The Community of Aurora enforces the 1976 Edition 
of the Uniform Building Code requiring smoke de- 
tection devices in new residential (as well as hotel/ 
motel) construction. 



NOTES 



CONNECTICUT 

State legislation requires that Level Four Protection, 
as defined in NFPA No. 74, be provided in all new 
construction of residential structures designed for 
two or more families which require a building per- 
mit. This mandatory enactment became effective 
October 1, 1976. 

As of October 1, 1978, all new, single family dwell- 
ings must meet the requirements for Level Four Pro- 
tection. 

DELAWARE 

Legislation requiring smoke detectors in all new resi- 
dential construction was introduced but not adopted 
by the legislature. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Legislation passed on June 20, 1978, requires smoke 
detectors in new residential occupancies, including 
hotels, motels, etc. New residential structures and 
existing residential structures "substantially rehabili- 
tated" after September 30, 1978, are required to in- 
stall smoke detectors in each separate sleeping area. 
"Substantially rehabilitated" means improvements 
"valued greater than one-half of the assessed valua- 
tion of the property including the land." All other 
existing residential structures, including single fam- 
ily dwellings, must install smoke detectors by June 
20, 1981. Battery-powered detectors are permitted 
only in existing or rehabilitated single family dwell- 
ings. The owner of the property is responsible for 
detector maintenance. 

FLORIDA 

No smoke detector legislation. State or local, appli- 
cable to residential housing was located. Legislation 
has been proposed but has not been passed. 

GEORGIA 

No smoke detector legislation. State or local, appli- 
cable to residential housing was located. 

HAWAII 

No smoke detector legislation applicable to residen- 
tial housing was located on the State level. 

Honolulu and Hawaii Counties have adopted the 
1973 Edition of the Uniform Building Code. The 
1976 Edition of the Uniform Building Code is cur- 
rently under study by all four Hawaii Counties. 

As of July 1, 1979, the State of Hawaii will no longer 
promulgate fire codes; this will become the respon- 
sibility of the individual counties. 

IDAHO 

Pursuant to the Uniform Building Code Advisory 
Act, the State of Idaho enforces the 1976 Edition of 
the Uniform Building Code. Requirements for the 
installation of smoke detectors in new residential 
construction are optional with local jurisdictions. 
However, 80 percent of the localities enforce the 
detector requirement. 



10 



ILLINOIS 

The Illinois Rules and Regulations for Fire Preven- 
tion and Safety require smoke detection devices in 
stairwells and hazardous areas of certain transient, 
residential occupancies (e.g., hotels/motels, room- 
ing, or lodging houses). There are no detector re- 
quirements for one-, two-, or multi-family dwellings. 

The city of Chicago requires detectors in new resi- 
dential construction. Existing structures of other than 
fire resistive construction, three or more stories in 
height with six or more dwelling units, or four or 
more stories in height with any number of dwell- 
ing units, must also be equipped with smoke detec- 
tors. 

INDIANA 

The State of Indiana has adopted the 1973 Edition of 
the Uniform Building Code. Any new home or apart- 
ment complex must be equipped with smoke detec- 
tors. 

The 1976 Edition of the Uniform Building Code is in 
the process of being adopted. 

IOWA 

No smoke detector legislation. State or local, appli- 
cable to residential housing was located. However, 
legislation was pending at the time of this study. 

KANSAS 

No smoke detector legislation applicable to residen- 
tial housing was located on the State level. 

The cities of Wichita and Topeka have adopted the 
1973 Edition of the Uniform Building Code making 
smoke detectors mandatory in new residential con- 
struction. 

KENTUCKY 

The State of Kentucky presently enforces the 1976 
Edition of the National Building Code. The new De- 
partment of Housing, Buildings, and Construction 
will soon adopt a mandatory minimum/maximum 
Kentucky Uniform Building Code which will be 
based largely upon the 1978 Edition of the BOCA 
Basic Building Code. First effective February 24, 
1980, the Kentucky Uniform Code will be phased in 
over a period of time to allow for the training of 
local code officials. The One and Two Family 
Dwelling Code, also adopted by the State, is en- 
forced only at the local level. 

LOUISIANA 

No smoke detector legislation applicable to residen- 
tial construction was located on the State level. The 
State of Louisiana enforces the Life Safety Code 
(NFPA 101), 1973 Edition, and requires a manual 
alarm system in certain apartment construction (Sec- 
tion 11-3331). 

New Orleans, Shreveport, and Jefferson Parish are 
among local jurisdictions that require smoke detec- 
tors in residential occupancies. 



NOTES 



11 



NOTES 



MAINE 

No smoke detector legislation, State or local, appli- 
cable to residential occupancies was located. The 
State does enforce the 1976 Edition of the Life 
Safety Code (NFPA 101) for specific occupancies 
(e.g., daycare facilities, correctional institutions). 
There is also a requirement, Section 2463, that any 
hotel, "buildings or groups of buildings under the 
same management in which there are more than 15 
sleeping rooms for hire," taller than two stories, 
must be equipped with smoke detectors by July 1, 
1981. 

MARYLAND 

The State of Maryland has enacted a law (Article 
38A, Section 12A) requiring that each sleeping area 
within all occupancies classified residential shall be 
provided with a minimum of one approved smoke 
detector sensing visible or invisible particles of com- 
bustion and installed in a manner and location ap- 
proved by the Fire Prevention Commission. In gen- 
eral, this does not apply to residential buildings con- 
structed or under construction prior to July 1, 1975. 
As of July 1, 1978, all existing hotels/motels and 
multi-family buildings with ten units or more not in 
compliance with the 1973 Edition of the Life Safety 
Code (NFPA 101) were required to have smoke de- 
tectors installed. 

On September 14, 1976, the Montgomery County 
Council passed an ordinance requiring the installa- 
tion of an approved smoke detector in all new and 
existing residential structures, including single fam- 
ily dwellings. Prince George's County enacted a 
similar ordinance but only regulates structures with 
three or more dwelling units. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

The Massachusetts State Building Code requires that 
residential housing, including manufactured homes, 
shall contain smoke detectors. The legislation speci- 
fies the minimum number of detectors as well as 
requirements for approved types of detectors, their 
locations, and mounting. The legislation applies only 
to buildings for which permits were issued on or 
after January 1, 1975. 

MICHIGAN 

The State of Michigan enforces the 1975 Edition of 
the Basic Building Code and mandates smoke detec- 
tors in all new residential construction. Local gov- 
ernments have the option of adopting the Uniform 
Building Code or Standard Building Code in lieu of 
the Basic Building Code. 

Legislation is pending which would set requirements 
for detectors in existing residential occupancies. 



12 



MINNESOTA 

The State Building Code, based upon .the 1976 Edi- 
tion of the Uniform Building Code, requires smoke 
detectors in all new residential construction. A re- 
cent State law mandated that local jurisdictions were 
to have adopted and begun enforcing the State code 
effective January 1, 1979. Previously, a local juris- 
diction was required to adopt the State code only if 
it chose to have a building code. 

State law also requires existing apartments, hotels, 
and lodging houses to have smoke detectors in- 
stalled by January 1, 1980. Existing one- and two- 
family dwellings rented or remodeled after January 
1, 1980, must also have detectors installed. 

The City of Minneapolis adopted an ordinance that 
requires all existing structures, except hotels and 
motels of fire-resistive or noncombustible construc- 
tion, to be equipped with detectors. Battery-oper- 
ated detectors are permitted only in owner-occupied 
dwellings. The effective date for existing structures 
is January 1, 1982. It is expected that the provisions 
of this ordinance that conflict with the State law 
noted above are null and void. 

MISSISSIPPI 

As of July 1978, the State adopted the Mississippi 
Fire Prevention Code, which incorporates the NFPA 
National Fire Codes. Smoke detectors are required 
in all new commercial residences (e.g., apartments, 
hotels). There are no provisions in the code for one- 
and two-family dwellings. Local jurisdictions are re- 
quired to adopt the Fire Prevention Code unless 
local ordinances are more stringent. 

MISSOURI 

The State of Missouri Is in the planning stages of a 
proposed statewide fire prevention code. Though 
several large cities do require smoke detectors in 
new residential construction, no statewide legisla- 
tion was located. 

MONTANA 

The State of Montana enforces the 1976 Edition of 
the Uniform Building Code and requires smoke de- 
tectors in all new residential construction. The code 
is mandatory, but may be strengthened at the local 
level. 

NEBRASKA 

No mandatory, statewide smoke detector legislation 
was located. The 1976 Edition of the Life Safety 
Code (NFPA 101) has been adopted but is not man- 
datory. 

The City of Lincoln requires the installation of 
smoke detectors in all new residential construction. 

NEVADA 

The State of Nevada uses the 1973 Edition of the 
Uniform Building Code; however, each local juris- 
diction must adopt the Code for the smoke detector 
provisions to apply. 



NOTES 



13 



NOTES 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Legislation requiring smoi<e detectors in ail new 
residential buildings was vetoed by the Governor. 
Only new residential structures 70 feet or more in 
height are required to have detection devices in- 
stalled; plans for these buildings must be approved 
by the State Fire Marshal's Office. It was reported 
that several localities have their own ordinances 
requiring smoke detectors in new residential con- 
struction. 

NEW JERSEY 

Effective January 1, 1977, smoke detectors are man- 
dated for all new residential construction. The State 
Building Code, the 1978 Edition of the Basic Build- 
ing Code, is not subject to local amendment. 

NEW MEXICO 

No smoke detector legislation, State or local, appli- 
cable to residential housing was located. The Life 
Safety Code (NFPA 101) has been adopted for spe- 
cific occupancies. A smoke detector bill is expected 
to be introduced. 

NEW YORK 

The building code of the State of New York requires 
smoke detectors in all new residential housing. 
However, each local jurisdiction must adopt the 
State code for the provisions to apply. The building 
code, if adopted, is not subject to local amendment; 
only the Housing Code Bureau has authority to 
amend the State Building Code. To date approxi- 
mately 850 municipalities have adopted the code. 
New York City, Rochester, Buffalo, and Albany have 
not adopted the State code. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

The State of North Carolina has a mandatory state- 
wide building code and requires smoke detectors in 
all new residential construction. Local amendments 
are allowed if a specific need is demonstrated and 
approval is received from the State Building Code 
Council. Thus far, no localities in the State require 
smoke detectors in existing structures. 

NORTH DAKOTA 

No statewide smoke detector legislation applicable 
to residential housing was located. However, some 
statewide legislation is pending. 

The communities of Fargo, Bismarck, Grand Forks, 
and Wahpeton enforce the 1973 Edition of the Uni- 
form Building Code; the 1975 Edition of the Basic 
Building Code has been adopted in Dickinson and 
Minot. Devils Lake has adopted the 1976 Edition of 
the Uniform Building Code with a local amendment 
requiring an additional detector, located near the 
central heating plant, in the basement or cellar of 
single family houses. This amendment was in re- 
sponse to a local problem. The codes in the above 
cities pertain only to new construction. 



14 



OHIO 

The Ohio State Building Code, a mandatory state- 
wide code, requires smoke detection in all new non- 
transient, non-sprinklered residential construction 
having four or more dwelling units. If the structure 
is a high-rise building (greater than 75 feet in height 
as defined by Ohio law), then an "Automatic Smoke 
Alarm System" is required. This system must be 
supervised, be connected to a central station, aux- 
iliary, or other like alarm service, have an annuncia- 
tor panel, and provide a local alarm to the floor of 
activation and the floor above. A bill was pend- 
ing with the legislature that would require ex- 
isting high-rise apartments or condominiums to be 
equipped with an "Automatic Smoke Alarm System." 
Under the Ohio Fire Code (1977 Edition), smoke de- 
tectors are required in new residential construction 
with two or more dwelling units. While this is a 
mandatory State law with applicable civil penalties, 
enforcement depends on local efforts. 

OKLAHOMA 

No statewide smoke detector legislation pertaining 
to residential housing was located. Proposed legis- 
lation was not accepted and no current legislation 
is pending. 

The City of Tulsa requires smoke detectors in all 
new residential construction. 

OREGON 

The building code of the State of Oregon, a manda- 
tory minimum/maximum code, requires smoke de- 
tectors in all new residential housing as well as any 
structure which undergoes remodeling costing 
$1,000 or more. 

The cities of Springfield and Eugene have adopted 
ordinances which make smoke detector laws appli- 
cable to all existing residential buildings. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

No statewide smoke detector legislation applicable 
to residential housing built on-site was located. The 
Industrialized Housing Division within the Depart- 
ment of Community Affairs enforces the 1978 Edition 
of the Basic Building Code for manufactured or in- 
dustrialized housing. State law defines an industrial- 
ized home as "any structure designed primarily for 
residential occupancy which is wholly or in substan- 
tial part made, fabricated, formed or assembled in 
manufacturing facilities for installation, or assembly 
and installation, on the building site." Detectors 
must be located and installed in accordance with the 
1975 Edition of NFPA 74, Level Four Protection. 



NOTES 



15 



NOTES 



RHODE ISLAND 

Mandatory, statewide legislation requires smoke de- 
tectors in all new or modified one-, two- and three- 
family dwellings (Sections 23-28-34). 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

No statewide smoke detector legislation was lo- 
cated. Localities have the option of adopting their 
own building codes. Many have adopted the 1978 
Edition of the Standard Building Code requiring 
smoke detectors in new residential construction. 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

There is no statewide smoke detector legislation ap- 
plicable to residential housing in the State of South 
Dakota. Legislation in this area has been defeated 
for the second straight year. However, all detectors 
sold in the State must meet Underwriters Labora- 
tories Standard 217. 

The City of Sioux Falls requires smoke detectors in 
all new residential construction. 

TENNESSEE 

The State of Tennessee has adopted the 1976 Edition 
of the Standard Building Code and the 1976 Edition 
of the NFPA National Fire Codes, including the 1973 
Life Safety Code. Neither of these codes are manda- 
tory statewide. 

Several local jurisdictions have smoke detector ordi- 
nances dealing with one- and two-family dwellings. 

TEXAS 

The State of Texas does not have statewide smoke 
detector legislation. Many localities in Texas have 
adopted building codes which require smoke detec- 
tors in new residential housing. 

Farmers Branch, a Dallas suburb, adopted an ordi- 
nance which not only requires installation of smoke 
detectors in newly constructed residences, but also 
in existing homes upon a change of occupancy or 
ownership. Whenever a change in residence or own- 
ership of a single-family home occurs, a certificate 
of occupancy must be obtained. To secure this cer- 
tificate, the new resident is required to install an ap- 
proved smoke detector within 30 days. A system of 
fines is provided as a means of enforcing this ordi- 
nance. 

UTAH 

The 1973 Edition of the Uniform Building Code is 
the mandatory, statewide, minimum building code 
requiring smoke detectors in new residential con- 
struction. However, many local communities have 
adopted the 1976 Edition of the Uniform Building 
Code. 

VERMONT 

The State of Vermont enforces the 1973 Life Safety 
Code (NFPA 101); however, there are no require- 
ments for residential smoke detectors in this docu- 
ment. Legislation pertaining to smoke detectors in 
new residential construction has not been approved. 



16 



The cities of Rutland and Burlington have adopted 
the 1976 Edition of the Life Safety Code, which re- 
quires smoke detectors in new residential construc- 
tion. 

VIRGINIA 

The Commonwealth of Virginia has adopted the 
1978 Edition of the Basic Building Code as a manda- 
tory, statewide, minimum/maximum code for new 
construction. Smoke detectors are required in new 
residential construction. Legislation which would 
have required smoke detectors in existing residential 
structures was defeated. 

The Chesterfield County Board of Supervisors 
adopted an amendment to the County Fire Preven- 
tion Code which gives the fire department the au- 
thority to survey and specify smoke detectors for 
existing multi-family dwellings (three or more dwell- 
ing units). 

WASHINGTON 

The State of Washington incorporates Sections 1310 
and 1413 of the 1973 Edition of the Uniform Build- 
ing Code into the State building code (Section RCW 
19.27). Smoke detection is required in all new resi- 
dential construction. Legislation which would have 
required smoke detectors in all existing residences 
not occupied by the owner was defeated. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

No smoke detector legislation. State or local, appli- 
cable to residential housing was located. 

WISCONSIN 

Legislation approved in May 1978 requires smoke 
detectors in public residential housing. Legislation 
dealing with smoke detector requirements in one- 
and two-family dwellings did not pass. However, a 
statewide one- and two-family building code is in 
the final stages of adoption and does contain a 
smoke detector provision. 

The Village Board of the Village of Bayside in Mil- 
waukee and Ozaukee Counties passed an ordinance 
regulating emergency alarm systems; all new struc- 
tures within the Village must have a smoke detection 
system. Existing structures, with the exception of 
one- and two-family dwellings, were required to in- 
stall such systems within 90 days. The legislation in- 
cludes an incentive provision allowing homeowners 
to finance the installation of the alarm system 
through a special assessment program. 

WYOMING 

The State of Wyoming has adopted the 1976 Edition 
of the Uniform Building Code as a mandatory, state- 
wide building code. Smoke detection is required in 
all new residential construction as well as guest 
rooms in hotels and motels. This law became effec- 
tive on March 4, 1977. 



NOTES 



17 



NOTES 



MODEL 

CODE PROVISIONS 



The activities of various model code groups have 
had a major impact on the regulatory process 
throughout the country. The building codes of at 
least 16 States are based in u'hoJe or part upon one 
of the model building codes. A large number of 
local jurisdictions have also adopted one of these 
codes. 

The major model building codes have mandatory 
smoke detector provisions for part or all of the pos- 
sible residential occupancy sub-classes. Similar pro- 
visions also appear in various portions of the NFPA 
Life Safety Code, which is not a building code. De- 
tector installation requirements for private dwellings 
can be found in the One and Two Family Dwelling 
Code and the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban De- 
velopment's Minimum Property Standards. 

As a general rule, the provisions of a building code 
apply only to new construction; existing buildings 
are normally regulated through other means. The 
Life Safety Code, however, applies to both new and 
existing construction. Section 1-4.1.1 of the 1976 
Edition of NFPA 101 states: "This code covers both 
new and existing construction. . . . Where there are 
no specific provisions ... for existing structures, the 
requirements for new construction shall apply." 

A description of the smoke detector provisions from 
the major model and NFPA codes follows. The 
address for each organization is listed on page 30. 

BASIC BUILDING CODE 

The 1975 or 1978 Editions of the Basic Building 
Code, published by the Building Officials and Code 
Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), are cur- 
rently used by several States. 

The 1975 Edition (Section 1216.3) requires that a 
smoke detector be installed in each dwelling unit of 
one- and two-family, and multi-family dwellings, 
and "in all buildings of use group R-1 (residential, 
hotels)." A 1976 code amendment made explicit the 
intent of the 1975 Code that a detector was required 
in "each guest room, suite, or sleeping area of use 
groups R-1 (residential, hotel, motel, lodging house, 
boarding house, and dormitory)." 

The 1978 Edition (Section 1216.3.3) includes provi- 
sions for an additional smoke detector installed in 
the basement or cellar of residential occupancies 
containing such areas. 

NATIONAL BUILDING CODE 

The National Building Code, 1976 Edition, is written 
by the American insurance Association (AIA). 



18 



Smoke detectors are required in each dwelling unit 
of Multi-family Buildings (Section 381), Dwellings 
(Section 382), and Penthouses for Residential Occu- 
pancy (Section 383). In residential occupancies other 
than apartments or dwellings (hotels, dormitories, 
lodging and rooming houses), smoke detectors are 
required only in common spaces such as hallways, 
and public and service areas (Section 380). 

STANDARD BUILDING CODE 

The Standard Building Code is published by the 
Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. 
(SBCC). 

The 1973 Edition did not contain any requirements 
for installation of detectors. The requirements of the 
1976 Edition evolved over a 3-year period: the first 
provision, a 1974 amendment (Section 1126) to the 
1973 Edition, required a detector in "every dwelling 
unit within an apartment house, condominium and 
townhouse. . . ." In 1975 the code was amended to 
include dwellings and to require detectors in the 
basement or cellar of dwellings or dwelling units 
(Section 1127). 

The 1976 Edition of the Standard Building Code (Sec- 
tion 1127) added requirements for detectors in every 
guest room of hotels and motels. A 1978 code 
amendment expanded the scope of the code to in- 
clude all sleeping rooms in dormitories (Section 
1127). 

UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 

The Uniform Building Code is published by the In- 
ternational Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). 

The 1973 Edition (Sections 1310 and 1413) provided 
for the installation of detectors in every dwelling, 
and every dwelling unit within an apartment house. 
The 1976 Edition was amended with an additional 
requirement for detectors in guest rooms within 
hotels, motels, and lodging houses. 

ONE AND TWO FAMILY DWELLING CODE 

The 1975 Edition of the One and Two Family Dwell- 
ing Code (Section R-216), sponsored by AIA, BOCA, 
ICBO, and SBCC, requires that every dwelling be 
provided with at least one smoke detector. 

LIFE SAFETY CODE 

The Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) is published by the 
National Fire Protection Association. 

The 1973 Edition contains no mandatory residential 
smoke detector requirements. 

The 1976 Edition requires detectors in living units of 
apartments (Sec. 11-3) and one- and two-family 
dwellings (Sec. 11-6); in the corridors of hotels (Sec. 
11-2); and "on each floor level" of a lodging or 
rooming house (Sec. 11-5). Detectors are not re- 
quired in dormitories (Sec. 11-4). 



NOTES 



19 



NOTES 



MOBILE HOMES 



According to a February 1978 Interim Report, "Mo- 
bile Home Fire Problem in the United States," pre- 
pared for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban 
Development by the National Fire Data Center, ap- 
proximately 10 million Americans were living, year- 
round, in more than 4 million mobile homes. Ex- 
pressing its desire to provide these citizens adequate, 
safe, and reliable housing, the Congress enacted the 
National Mobile Home Construction and Safety 
Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. § 5401 et seq.). 

HUD REGULATIONS 

Pursuant to this Act, the Department of Housing and 
Urban Development promulgated regulations gov- 
erning mobile home construction. In particular. Sec- 
tion 280.208 of Title 24 of the Code of Federal Regu- 
lations requires that "at least one smoke detector 
(which may be a single-station alarm device) shall 
be installed in each mobile home to protect each 
separate bedroom area." 

STATE AND LOCAL EFFECT 

A significant feature of the National Mobile Home 
Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 is its 
effect upon State and local regulation of mobile 
homes. Under the Act, all State or local legislation 
not identical to the HUD regulations would be void. 
However, State or local jurisdictions are free to reg- 
ulate construction and safety practices for which no 
Federal standard exists [42 U.S.C. §§ 5403(d), 
5422(a)]. 

ANSI AND NFPA STANDARDS 

Because HUD regulations have pre-empted State and 
local laws regarding new mobile home construction, 
there has been a change in the status of NFPA 501 B, 
"Standard for Mobile Homes." Though still an offi- 
cial NFPA Standard, it is no longer included in the 
NFPA's National Fire Codes. The standard has not 
been abolished because of its continued use by 
jurisdictions outside the United States. The 1976 
Edition of the "Standard for Mobile Homes" (NFPA 
501 B— ANSI 119.1) is the Mobile Home Standard 
currently adopted by the American National Stand- 
ards Institute (ANSI). 



20 



LOCAL LEGISLATION 



NOTES 



The large number of city and county governments 
makes data collection an almost impossible task. The 
1978 Statistical Abstract, published by the Bureau of 
the Census, identified approximately 3,000 county 
and 36,000 municipal and township governments. 
Though the number of city and county governments 
that have adopted smoke detector legislation is un- 
known, the benefit of these laws is clear. 

The greatest need for local legislation is in those 
States that have no statewide smoke detector law. 
This applies as well when the State law is either a 
recommended guide or when specific adoption at 
the local level is required. When the State law is 
mandatory, local governments remain free to enact 
more stringent local laws. Seven States, however, 
prohibit local amendments. See the discussion on 
"Minimum/Maximum Codes" on page 8. 

The information on the cities listed below was taken 
from an independent study not conducted by the 
U.S. Fire Administration. The results of this study 
were not included in the main body of the report 
because the data has not been verified. More impor- 
tantly, it is not known whether the terms used are 
consistent with the specific definitions of the Admin- 
istration's study. To avoid possible confusion, the 
results of the two studies are listed separately. 

Atlanta has no smoke detector law. An ordinance is 
under consideration that would require detectors 
in residences larger than duplexes. 

Baltimore requires smoke detectors in existing con- 
dominiums and apartments with ten or more 
dwellings under one roof (except those of fire re- 
sistive or noncombustible material), and in new 
residential construction. 

Boston requires smoke detectors for new residential 
construction and for major renovations. 

Chicago requires smoke detectors in new residential 
construction, and also requires smoke detectors in 
existing structures of other than fire-resistive con- 
struction with six or more dwelling units; or four 
or more stories in height with any number of 
dwelling units. 

Cincinnati requires smoke detectors in new residen- 
tial construction, and any residential building 
higher than 75 feet. 

Cleveland, effective March 1, 1979, requires smoke 
detectors in all new and existing residential build- 
ings. This ordinance governs single family dwell- 
ings as well as apartments, hotels, motels, room- 
ing houses, etc. 



21 



NOTES 



Columbus requires smoke detectors in all new resi- 
dential construction. 

Denver requires smoke detectors in new residential 
construction. 

Detroit requires smoke detectors for new residential 
construction, and also requires smoke detectors 
when a home is sold, and if remodeling costing 
more than $3,000 is done. 

Fort Worth requires smoke detectors in new dwell- 
ings. A requirement for detectors in existing resi- 
dences is in the planning stages. 

Houston has no smoke detector law. 

Indianapolis requires smoke detectors in new homes 
and apartment complexes. 

Kansas City requires smoke detectors in all new resi- 
dential construction, and in existing residential- 
type structures of three or more stories and con- 
sisting of combustible material by 1980. 

Los Angeles requires smoke detectors in new resi- 
dential construction. 

Miami hotels, rooming houses and other transient 
dwellings (three stories or less) have the option of 
installing smoke detectors rather than meeting the 
"fire resistive or noncombustible material" con- 
struction codes. 

Milwaukee has no smoke detector law. 

Minneapolis requires all existing structures except 
hotels and motels of fire resistive or noncombusti- 
ble construction to have smoke detectors by Jan- 
uary 1, 1982. Apartments, hotels, lodging houses, 
and one- and two-family dwellings rented or re- 
modeled after January 1, 1980, and new residen- 
tial construction must have smoke detectors. 

New York City has no smoke detector law. A law for 
apartment buildings is being considered, but has 
not yet been drafted. 

Norwalk, Conn., requires smoke detectors in all new 
residential construction and major renovations. 

Oklahoma City requires smoke detectors in new 
construction. 

Philadelphia has no smoke detector law. There has 
been some discussion of a requirement for nurs- 
ing homes. 

Phoenix has no smoke detector law. 

Pittsburgh has no smoke detector law. A revised fire 
code requiring smoke detectors in new buildings 
has not yet passed the City Council. 

Portland, Ore., requires smoke detectors by January 
1, 1980, in rented homes and apartments. Residen- 
tial properties and single family owner occupan- 
cies must have smoke detectors when sold. 



22 



Sacramento requires smoke detectors in new resi- 
dential construction. 

Salt Lake City requires smoke detectors in new resi- 
dential construction. 

San Diego requires smoke detectors in new residen- 
tial construction, and every dwelling unit within 
apartments, hotels, and similar structures. 

San Jose requires smoke detectors in new residential 
construction. 

Seattle requires smoke detectors in residential con- 
struction. 

St. Louis requires a smoke detector adjacent to the 
bedrooms in new residential construction. Addi- 
tional detectors are required in multiple family 
dwellings. 

St. Petersburg requires smoke detectors in new resi- 
dential construction. 

Tampa has no smoke detector law. 

Winston-Salem requires smoke detectors in all new 
residential construction. 



NOTES 



23 



NOTES 



LIST OF 

STATE CONTACTS 



Anyone desiring more detailed information than 
contained in this Update may wish to contact the 
State(s) in question directly. 

RoyThornell ALABAMA 

State Fire Marshal 

455 S. McDonough St. 

Montgomery, AL 36104 

205/832-5844 

Ronald Hendrie ALASKA 

State Fire Marshal 

Dept. of Public Safety 

Pouch N 

Juneau, AK 99801 

907/465-4300 

Paul Saunders ARIZONA 

State Fire Marshal 

P.O. Box 19070 

1601 W. Jefferson St. 

Phoenix, AZ 85005 

602/271-5062 

W. R. Jones, Cmdr. ARKANSAS 

State Police 

Fire Marshal Section 

P.O. Box 4005 

Little Rock, AR 72204 

501/371-1846 

Philip Favro CALIFORNIA 

State Fire Marshal 

7171 Bowling Dr. 

Suite 800 

Sacramento, CA 95823 

916/322-2370 

Jim Underwood COLORADO 

State Fire Marshal 

1001 East 62nd 

Denver, CO 80216 

303/289-5518 

Major William F. Ellert CONNECTICUT 

Department of State Police 

P.O. Box 780 

100 Washington St. 

Hartford, CT 06101 

203/239-6620 



J. Benjamin Roy, Jr. 
State Fire Marshal 
P.O. Box 109 
Dover, DE 19901 
302/678-4393 



DELAWARE 



24 



Carmel Belvalvo 
Fire Marshal 
Potomac Bidg., N 
Room 406 
614 H St., N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20001 
202/745-2250 



DISTRICT 
OF COLUMBIA 



NOTES 



Olin Greene FLORIDA 

State Fire Marshal's Office 

Gaines Street, Larson BIdg. 

Room 4254 

Tallahassee, FL 32304 

904/488-8268 

Bob R. Gore, Jr. GEORGIA 

State Fire Marshal 

State Capital 

Atlanta, GA 30334 

404/656-2064 

Insurance Comm. & Fire Marshal HAWAII 

Fire Marshal Division 

State of Hawaii 

P.O. Box 541 

Honolulu, HI 96822 

808/548-7580 

Robert C. Kinghorn IDAHO 

State Fire Marshal 

Dept. of Labor 

317 Main St., Rm. 400 

Boise, ID 83720 

208/384-2327 

Jack Henry Carter, Sr. ILLINOIS 

State Fire Marshal 

Division of Fire Prevention 

3150 Executive Park Drive 

Springfield, I L 62706 

217/782-7381 



William C. Goodwin 
State Fire Marshal 
100 North Senate Ave. 
State Office BIdg. 
Room 502 

Indianapolis, IN 46209 
317/633-4778 

Wilbur R. Johnson 
State Fire Marshal 
State Office BIdg. 
523 East 12th St. 
Des Moines, lA 50319 
515/281-5821 

Floyd H. Dibbern 
State Fire Marshal 
211 West 7th St. 
Topeka, KS 66603 
913/296-3401 



INDIANA 



IOWA 



KANSAS 



25 



NOTES 



Bob G. Estep KENTUCKY 

State Fire Marshal 

U.S. 127 Office BIdg. South 

Frankfort, KY 40601 

502/564-3626 

Daniel L Kelly LOUISIANA 

State Fire Marshal 

325 Loyola St. 

State Office Bidg. 

Room 106 

New Orleans, LA 70112 

504/568-5502 



Don Bisset 
State Fire Marshal 
Dept. of Public Safety 
99 Western Ave. 
Augusta, ME 04333 
207/289-2481 



MAINE 



James C. Robertson MARYLAND 

State Fire Marshal 

301 West Preston St. 

Baltimore, MD 21201 

301/383-2520 



Joseph A. O'Keefe 
State Fire Marshal 
Department of Public Safety 
1010 Commonwealth Ave. 
Boston, MA 02215 
617/566-4500 



MASSACHUSETTS 



William Rucinski, Captain MICHIGAN 

Department of State Police 

Chief Fire Marshal Division 

1048 PierpontDr. 

Lansing, Ml 48913 

517/322-1924 

Wes Werner MINNESOTA 

State Fire Marshal 

1246 University Ave. 

St. Paul, MN 55101 

612/296-7641 

J. R. Crutcher, Chief MISSISSIPPI 

Department State Fire Marshal 

P.O. Box 79 

Jackson, MS 39205 

601/354-6304 

William Helbig MISSOURI 

State Fire Marshal 

Department of Public Safety 

505 Missouri Blvd. 

Jefferson City, MO 65101 

314/751-2930 



Robert Kelly MONTANA 

Chief, Fire Marshal Bureau 

1409 Helena Ave. 

Helena, MT 59601 

406/449-2050 

Wally Bardett NEBRASKA 

State Fire Marshal 

301 Centennial Mall, South 

Lincoln, NE 68508 

402/471-2027 

Tom J. Huddleston NEVADA 

State Fire Marshal 

Kinkead BIdg. 

Capitol Complex 

505 East King St. 

Carson City, NV 89701 

702/885-4290 



NOTES 



Raymond Dewhurst 
State Fire Marshal 
Dept. of Safety 
Concord, NH 03301 
603/271-3336 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



Charles Decker, Chief NEW JERSEY 

Bureau of Construction Code 

Enforcement 
P.O. Box 2768 
Trenton, NJ 08625 
609/292-6364 

Kenneth C. Moore NEW MEXICO 

Superintendent of Insurance 

State of New Mexico 

Fire Marshal's Office 

P.O. Drawer 1269 

Santa Fe, NM 87501 

505/827-2357 

Francis A. McGarry, Director NEW YORK 
Division of Fire Prevention 

and Control 
NYS Department of State 
162 Washington Ave. 
Albany, NY 12232 
518/474-6746 

Kern E. Church NORTH CAROLINA 

Chief Deputy State Marshal 

Box 26387 

Raleigh, NC 27611 

919/733-3901 



Vance Arneson 
State Fire Marshal 
Lock Box 1292 
Bismarck, ND 58501 
701/224-2434 



NORTH DAKOTA 



27 



NOTES 



William B. Sanders 
State Fire Marshal 
8894 East Main St. 
Reynoldsburg, OH 43068 
614/864-5510 

Jack C. Sanders 

State Fire Marshal 

4030 North Lincoln Blvd. 

Suite 100 

Oklahoma City, OK 73105 

405/424-4371 



OHIO 



OKLAHOMA 



Clyde W. Centers 

State Fire Marshal 

103 Labor & Industries BIdg. 

Salem, OR 97310 

503/378-4917 

Kenneth Bender 
Director, Pennsylvania 

State Police 
Fire Marshal Division 
P.O. Box 2771 
Harrisburg, PA 17105 
717/783-5529 



OREGON 



PENNSYLVANIA 



Earl F. Shannon 

Division of Fire Safety 

12 Humbert St. 

North Providence, Rl 02911 

401/277-2335 



RHODE ISLAND 



M. B. Robinson 
State Fire Marshal 
300 Gervais St. 
Columbia, SC 29201 
803/758-2941 



SOUTH CAROLINA 



Joseph P. Egger 
State Fire Marshal 
Capital BIdg. 
Pierre, SD 57501 
605/773-3562 



SOUTH DAKOTA 



Tom Copeland 

Acting State Fire Marshal 

Division of Fire Prevention 

202 Capital Towers BIdg. 

Nashville, TN 37219 

615/741-2981 

Jack L. Bordner 

Chief of Licensing 

Texas State Board of Private 

Investigators 
P.O. Box 13509 
Austin, TX 78711 
512/475-3944 



TENNESSEE 



TEXAS 



Grant R. Walker 
State Fire Marshal 
101 State Capitol 
Salt Lake City, UT 84114 
801/533-5318 



UTAH 



NOTES 



Richard D. Jones VERMONT 

Director of Fire Prevention 

Department of Industry and Labor 

118 State St. 

Montpelier,VT 05602 

802/828-2106 



Howard Summers 
State Fire Marshal 
P.O. Box 1157 
Richmond, VA 23209 
804/786-4751 



VIRGINIA 



Thomas Brace 
Chief State Fire Marshal 
Insurance Bldg. 
01ympia,WA 98504 
206/753-3605 

Walter Smittle III 
State Fire Marshal 
1800 Washington St., East 
Charleston, W. VA 25305 
304/348-2191 

Larry Litchfield 

Dept. of Labor, Industry & 

Human Services 
Safety of Building Division 
201 East Washington Ave. 
Madison, Wl 53701 
608/266-3151 



WASHINGTON 



WEST VIRGINIA 



WISCONSIN 



Billy M. Weckwerth 
State Fire Marshal 
720 West 18th St. 
Cheyenne, WY 82002 
307/777-7288 



WYOMING 



29 



NOTES 



ADDRESSES OF 
MODEL CODE 
ORGANIZATIONS 



American Insurance Association 

Engineering and Safety Service 

85 John St. 

New York, NY 10038 

212/433-4400 

Building Officials and Code Administrators 

International, Inc. 
17926 South Halsted 
Homewood, IL 60430 
312/799-2300 

International Conference of Building Officials 
5360 South Workman Mill Rd. 
Whittier, CA 90601 
213/699-0541 

National Fire Protection Association 
470 Atlantic Ave. 
Boston, MA 02210 
617/482-8755 

Southern Building Code Congress International 
900Montclair Rd. 
Birmingham, AL 35213 
205/591-1853 



30 



NOTES 



31 



NOTES 



The U.S. Fire Administration published the first 
Smoke Detectors and Legislation manual in late 1977. 
It contains information on the status of State and 
local smoke detector legislation at that time and 
presents examples of State, local, and model laws. 

Since this Update does not present model laws, you 
may want to obtain a copy of the earlier manual. 
Copies are^$2.10 each; Order No. 000-003-00527-5 
from: 



NOTES 



SujDerintendent of Documents 
Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 



Federal Emergency Management Agency 

United States Fire Administration 

Washington, D.C. 20472 POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 

FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY 

OFFICIAL BUSINESS ^^^^-^'^ 

.Penalty for Private Use, $300